he image in its original context
on the page: www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1061070/posts
Islamic Fundamentalist Networks in the United States
The image in its original context
on the page: www.doglegs.net/cclovett/mapof.htm
Terrorism in the US leading up to September 11, 2001
JULY 21, 2000
Suspected Hizballah Cell Disrupted
On July 21, 2000, members of the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) in Charlotte, North Carolina, arrested 18 members of a suspected cigarette-smuggling ring. Another individual suspected of helping the Charlotte smuggling ring was arrested the same day in Detroit, Michigan. The smuggling proceeds are alleged to have been sent to support the activities of Hizballah, a terrorist organization which operates primarily from Lebanon. Charges included several Immigration and Naturalization Service violations as well as visa fraud, money laundering, racketeering, and material support for a terrorist organization. Eight of the suspects have been denied bail. In 2000, one female subject pled guilty to visa and marriage fraud charges and was sentenced to probation. In 2001, six subjects (three male, three female) pled guilty to visa and marriage fraud charges with sentences ranging from time served to probation. One female subject was found guilty of marriage fraud by jury trial. Charges of marriage fraud were dismissed against one female, a U.S. citizen. One nonindicted Lebanese female was voluntarily deported. The remaining subjects were awaiting trial at the end of 2001.
DECEMBER 17, 2000
Terry Nichols’ Appeal Denied
On December 17, 2000, a federal appeals court denied convicted Oklahoma City bombing conspirator Terry Nichols’ request for a new trial. The appeal alleged that the FBI had withheld information that could have helped his case. The three-judge panel ruled that any information withheld by the FBI would not have provided a “reasonable chance of changing the outcome” of the case. Nichols is serving a life sentence for his role in the April 19, 1995, bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building that killed 168 people.
DECEMBER 20, 2000
Five Suspects Indicted in Embassy Bombing Conspiracy
On December 20, 2000, a grand jury in the Southern District of New York (SDNY) returned an indictment against five suspects in the case of the United States v. Usama bin Laden, et al. The five suspects, Saif Al-Adel, Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah, Muhsin Musa Matwalli Atwah, Ahmed Mohamed Hamed Ali, and Anas Al-Libi were charged in the overall conspiracy, led by Usama bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda organization, to kill U.S. nationals and engage in other illegal acts. In addition, Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah has been charged for his role as the mastermind of the August 7, 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
October 12, 2000
BOMBING OF USS COLE, ADEN, YEMEN
On October 12, 2000, two suicide pilots of a small bomb-laden boat pulled alongside of the USS Cole at midship, offered friendly gestures to several crew members, and detonated their explosives. The U.S. destroyer, en route to the Persian Gulf, was making a prearranged fuel stop at the port of Aden, Yemen, when the attack occurred. The blast ripped a hole in the side of the USS Cole approximately 40 feet in diameter and killed 17 U.S. Navy personnel. At least 40 other crew members were injured.
Numerous FBI field offices and legal attaches, several hundred FBI agents and support staff, and Joint Terrorism Task Force personnel took part in the investigation into the bombing of the USS Cole. The FBI also established a cooperative working relationship with the Government of Yemen. Investigation revealed that the USS Cole bombing followed an unsuccessful attempt on January 3, 2000, to bomb another U.S. Navy ship, the USS The Sullivans. In this earlier incident, the boat sank before the explosives could be detonated; however, the boat and the explosives were salvaged. The boat was then refitted and the explosives were tested and reused in the USS Cole attack.
The suspects in the bombing of the USS Cole were believed to have ties to Al-Qaeda and the Islamic Army of Aden, an extremist group opposed to the Yemeni Government and the presence of U.S. and other Western influences in Yemen. By year’s end, Yemeni authorities had arrested eight suspects, including Jamal Muhammad Ahmad Al-Badawi and Fahad Muhammad Ahmad Al-Quso, two of the alleged masterminds of the USS The Sullivans and the USS Cole attacks. Al-Badawi and Al-Quso are known Al-Qaeda operatives who trained in Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan during the 1990s. Other suspects, including alleged key coconspira-tors Tawfiq Mohummad bin Saleh bin Roshayed bin Attash and Mohammed Hamdi Mohammed Sadiq Al Ahdal, remain fugitives.
TERRORIST ACTIVITY by REGION 1980 - 2001
*Although designated as a single act of international terrorism, the aircraft attacks of September 11,
2001, have been designated as one terrorist incident in the Northeastern region and one terrorist
incident in the Southern region for the purposes of this graph. Similarly, although the anthrax mailings that occurred from September through November 2001 have been categorized as a single act of terrorism, the incidents have been designated as one terrorist incident in the Northeastern region and one terrorist incident in the Southern region for the purposes of this graph.
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
New York, New York Arlington, Virginia
Stony Creek Township, Pennsylvania
(One act of International Terrorism)
On the morning of September 11, 2001, four U.S. commercial airliners were hijacked by four coordinated teams of terrorists. The 19 hijackers who carried out the operation were affiliated with
Aerial views of the September 11 crash sites, clockwise from upper left: World Trade Center in New York City; Stony Creek Township, Pennsylvania; Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia.
Al-Qaeda, a worldwide terrorist network that had previously attacked U.S. military and diplomatic targets. The hijackers used knives, boxcutters, and possibly pepper spray to attack passengers and flight crews and to commandeer the aircraft. After taking control of the aircraft, the hijackers flew toward preselected targets on the U.S. East Coast. Three of the commandeered aircraft reached their destinations, destroying the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and badly damaging the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The fourth aircraft crashed into a remote field in Stony Creek Township,
Pennsylvania, as passengers attempted to regain control of the airplane. All of the passengers on each of the aircraft were killed in the attack, as were more than 2,500 people in the twin towers and the Pentagon. In total, 2,783* people died in the September 11 attack, making it the most deadly act of terrorism ever committed. The September 11 attack also marked the first known suicide terrorist attack carried out in the United States since the FBI began keeping terrorist records.
The coordinated attack began shortly after American Airlines (AA) flight 11 departed Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts, bound for Los Angeles, California, at 7:59 a.m. Eighty-one passengers and 11 crew members were onboard the Boeing 767 aircraft. Minutes into the cross-country flight, a team of five terrorists--Mohamed Atta, Abdul Aziz al Omari, Satam al Suqami, Waleed al Sheri, and Wail al Shehri--commandeered the aircraft. At 8:13 a.m., AA flight 11 diverted from its charted course. It is believed that Mohamed Atta, who had obtained flight training in the United States during the prior two years, had taken over the aircraft’s controls, redirecting it toward New York City. At approximately 8:46 a.m., AA flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. Less than two hours later, at 10:25 a.m., the North Tower collapsed.
At approximately 7:58 a.m., United Airlines (UA) flight 175, a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Boston’s Logan International Airport bound for Los Angeles, with 51 passengers and 9 crew members onboard. Shortly after takeoff, the plane was hijacked by five terrorists--Marwan al Shehhi, Fayez Ahmed Banihammad, Ahmed Alghamdi, Hamza Alghamdi, and Mohand Alshehri. It is believed that Marwan al Shehhi, who received flight training in the United States during the prior two years, took over controls of the aircraft, flying it toward New York City. At 9:05 a.m., UA flight 175 struck the South Tower of the World Trade Center, which collapsed 50 minutes later at 9:55 a.m.
At 8:20 a.m., AA flight 77, a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Dulles International Airport in Herndon, Virginia, en-route to Los Angeles, with 58 passengers and six crew members on-board. Among the passengers were five hijackers--Hani Hanjour, Khalid al-Mihdar, Nawaf al-Hazmi, Salem al-Hazmi, and Majed Moqed--who subdued the passengers and crew and commandeered the flight. It is believed that Hani Hanjour, who began pilot training in 1996 in the United States, took over controls of the aircraft. At 8:55 a.m., the aircraft began an unauthorized turn to the southeast, to return toward the Washington, D.C., area. At 9:37 a.m., AA flight 77 crashed into the southwest side of the Pentagon. In addition to the 64 victims aboard the aircraft, 125 people in the Pentagon died as a result of the crash and resulting fire.
At 8:42 a.m., UA flight 93, a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Newark (New Jersey) International Airport en-route to San Francisco, California, with 37 passengers and seven crew members on-board. Among the passengers was a team of four hijackers--Ziad Samir Jarrah, Saeed Alghamdi, Ahmad Ibrahim A. al Haznawi, and Ahmed Alnami. The aircraft reached a cruising altitude of more than 35,000 feet by 9:15, and the automatic pilot was engaged. At approximately 9:28 a.m., a manual override to change altitude and direction was executed. The aircraft climbed to more than 40,000 feet and turned from its westerly direction to the southeast. Although the automatic pilot remained engaged for the remainder of the flight, the aircraft descended gradually to an altitude of 5,000 feet. Ziad Samir Jarrah, the only hijacker with flight training, having obtained a pilot’s license in the United States during the prior two years, is believed to have taken over the controls of the aircraft after the hijacking. As the aircraft descended, passengers were herded to the rear of the airplane, where at least one of the hijackers told passengers to place telephone calls to their loved ones. Through these telephone calls and recordings from the cockpit voice recorder and air traffic control tapes, investigators were able to piece together some details from the final moments of UA flight 93. Passengers set in motion a plan to regain control of the flight--possibly by throwing scalding water on the hijackers. UA flight 93 crashed into a remote field in Stony Creek Township, Pennsylvania, at approximately 10:03 a.m. The crash resulted in the deaths of all 33 passengers and seven crew members.
* This number does not include the 19 hijackers, all of whom died in the attack.
Bacillus Anthracis Mailings
New York, New York Washington, D.C. Lantana, Florida
(One act of Terrorism)
In the fall of 2001, the United States was subjected to the most significant bioterrorist attack in the nation’s history. A total of four anthrax-tainted parcels were recovered, including letters mailed to NBC News Anchor Tom Brokaw, the editor of The New York Post
Patrick Leahy people and were treated and recovered. As a pre-cautionary measure, an additional 20,000 people were given antibiotics and 21 buildings, including offices of the U.S. House Representatives U.S. Senate facilities, were amination.
Anthrax, the bacterium by several (skin lesions), intestinal ence symptoms If left untreated, of becoming
The first victim of anthrax exposure, Robert Stevens, was employed with American Media Incorporated (AMI), the nation’s largest publisher of tabloid newspapers. Stevens sought medical treatment after he began experiencing flu-like symptoms
on September 30, 2001; on October 4, 2001, laboratory results indicated pulmonary anthrax; and on October 5, 2001, within three days of being hospitalized, Stevens died. Days later, a second victim, also an employee of AMI, became ill with pulmonary anthrax. The second victim was treated promptly with antibiotics and recovered fully. Although no anthrax-tainted parcels were recovered at the AMI facility, swabbings indicated the presence of Bacillus anthracis at a number of locations within the AMI building; the facility was closed and at year’s end was undergoing additional testing.
In September 2001, letters were mailed to The New York Post and to NBC News Anchor Tom Brokaw. The letters were postmarked in Trenton, New Jersey, on Tuesday, September, 18, 2001–exactly one week after the September 11 attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. A CBS employee and the seven-month-old baby of an ABC producer also tested positive for cutaneous anthrax suggesting that additional letters may have been sent to the New York offices of CBS and ABC; however, no letters were recovered from these locations.
In October 2001 letters were addressed to U.S. senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy. Both letters contained anthrax powder along with references to “September 11, 2001,” “Anthrax,” and “Allah.” When the Senator Daschle letter was opened by a staff member, a small cloud of anthrax spilled out of the envelope. The U.S. Capitol Police and FBI were notified, and the area was vacated and secured immediately.
The letter to Senator Leahy, Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, was recovered from a quarantined postal facility on November 16, 2001. The envelope included the same fictitious return address hand-printed on the Daschle letter: 4th Grade, Greendale School, Franklin Park, NJ 08852. All four anthrax-tainted letters were mailed in envelopes that were prestamped and embossed with a blue “Federal Eagle” design on the front. These envelopes can be purchased only in U.S. Post Offices, via the Internet, or through catalogue phone order. Additionally, the four letters were all processed at the Hamilton Distribution Center located in Hamilton Township, New Jersey, and were postmarked in Trenton, New Jersey.
Although the four recovered letters bore many similarities, significant variations exist between the letters sent to senators Daschle and Leahy and those sent to the media. The two letters mailed to the senators contained a more refined form of anthrax powder. The text of the letters also varied between the two sets of letters. The two known letters addressed to the media included the following language: “9/11/01 // THIS IS NEXT // TAKE PENACILIN NOW // DEATH TO AMERICA // DEATH TO ISRAEL // ALLAH IS GREAT” (double slashes inserted for clarity and indicate line breaks in the text). The letters sent to the senators stated "YOU CAN NOT STOP US. WE HAVE THIS ANTHRAX. YOU DIE NOW. ARE YOU AFRAID? DEATH TO AMERICA. DEATH TO ISRAEL. ALLAH IS GREAT.” These letters are being examined by FBI Laboratory personnel as part of the ongoing investigation.
By the end of 2001, 11 cases of pulmonary anthrax were confirmed, seven cases of cutaneous anthrax were confirmed, and four additional cases remain suspect. Five of the 18 confirmed anthrax cases resulted in death. Each of the deaths resulted from pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax. These are the first known deaths in the United States resulting from criminal use of a biological agent.
OCTOBER 14, 2001
(One act of Domestic Terrorism)
During the early morning of October 14, 2001, a fire was reported at the U.S. Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Corral in Litchfield, California. Upon arrival, firefighters encountered a large hay barn fully engulfed in flames. A search of the property, consisting of several corrals housing more than 100 horses, revealed that fences had been cut and gates opened, in an apparent attempt to allow the horses to escape. Three intact improvised incendiary devices similar to those used in previous arsons attributed to the ELF were also recovered. The ELF claimed responsibility for the arson, which caused damages estimated between $75,000 and $85,000.
NOVEMBER 12, 2001
Burglary and Vandalism
San Diego, California
(One act of Domestic Terrorism)
On November 12, 2001, the San Diego (California) Police Department responded to a burglary and vandalism report at Sierra Biomedical. A Sierra Biomedical van was covered with red paint and graffiti referencing the ALF. It was subsequently determined that toxic chemicals believed to be acid and bleach had been deliberately poured throughout the research facility. Additional graffiti in black spray paint stating that “VIVISECTION IS FRAUD” and “THE ALF WAS HERE” was also found at the facility. Damages were estimated to exceed $500,000. The ALF claimed responsibility for this incident via an e-mail sent to the vice president and general manager of Sierra Biomedical.
MARCH 29, 2001
Los Angeles, California
(Prevention of one act of Domestic Terrorism)
On March 29, 2001, Ronald Mike Denton was arrested for threatening to attack the Chevron Oil Refinery at El Segundo, California. He was indicted on three counts: interference with commerce by threats or violence, threat to use a weapon of mass destruction, and mailing threatening communications. Investigation revealed that Denton had been employed by the Chevron Refinery for approximately 12 years. Dissatisfied with working conditions and promotion decisions, he was placed on stress leave. As a condition of his leave, Denton was required to undergo outpatient psychiatric treatment. During his sessions, Denton repeatedly threatened to destroy the refinery and surrounding communities. At the time of his arrest, several firearms were found in his bedroom, including an SKS assault rifle, 1,400 rounds of jacketed ammunition, and books on how to create explosives and survive as a fugitive.
Additionally, placards and Chevron employee identification cards that allowed Denton access to the refinery were found in his automobile. Illegal fireworks were also found, which could have facilitated Denton’s detailed plan to detonate seven liquid petroleum gas spheres, some of which held up to 6,272,692 pounds of highly volatile fuel. Had Denton carried out his planned attack, financial losses could have exceeded $4.8 billion.
DECEMBER 11, 2001
Los Angeles, California
(Prevention of one act of Domestic Terrorism)
On December 11, 2001, Irving David Rubin and Earl Leslie Krugel were arrested by the Los Angeles Joint Terrorism Task Force for conspiring to build and place improvised explosive devices (IEDs) at the King Fahd Mosque in Culver City, California, and the local office of Congressman Darrell Issa. Rubin and Krugel were subsequently charged with conspiracy to destroy a building by means of an explosive, as well as possession of a destructive device during and in relation to a crime of violence. Rubin and Krugel were active members of the Jewish Defense League (JDL), a violent extremist Jewish organization. Statements by Rubin and Krugel indicated that they had planned the attack against the mosque to demonstrate the militancy of the JDL. Krugel further indicated that the attack was planned to provide a “wake up call” to the Muslim community. It was determined that Rubin and Krugel had already acquired the necessary components to build an IED, including pipes, fuses, and smokeless powder.
Irving David Rubin
JANUARY 19, 2001
Former San Joaquin Leader, Donald Rudolph, Pleads Guilty to 1999 Propane Plot
On January 19, 2001, Donald Rudolph pled guilty to withholding knowledge of a conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction in connection with a 1999 plot to destroy a propane storage facility near Elk Grove, California. Rudolph also pled guilty to conspiring to kill a U.S. district judge. The plot to attack the propane storage facility was disrupted on December 3, 1999, when members of the Sacramento Joint Terrorism Task Force arrested Kevin Ray Patterson and Charles Dennis Kiles. Patterson, Kiles, and Rudolph were associated with an antigovern-ment group active in the central region of the state. When arrested, Patterson and Kiles were in posses-
sion of detonation cord, blasting caps, grenade hulls, and various chemicals, including ammonium nitrate. They were also in possession of numerous weapons. Patterson and Kiles were awaiting trial at year’s end.
JANUARY 24, 2001
Buford O'Neal Furrow enters Guilty Plea in Shooting at North Valley Jewish Community Center
On January 24, 2001, Buford O’Neal Furrow pled guilty to the murder of Joseph Ileto, a U.S. postal employee, and to shooting several children at the North Valley Jewish Community Center. The attack took place on August 10, 1999, when Furrow fired gunshots into the North Valley Jewish Community Center in Granada Hills, California. While fleeing the scene, Furrow shot and killed Joseph Ileto. On March 26, 2001, Furrow was sentenced to five life sentences plus 110 years and required to pay $690,000 in restitution to his victims.
TERRORIST ACTIVY by CLASSIFICATION 1980 - 2001
DOMESTIC ACTS OF TERRORISM 345
INTERNATIONAL ACTS OF TERRORISM 136
JANUARY 31, 2001
Verdicts Handed Down in the Pan Am 103 Bombing Case
On January 31, 2001, a special three-judge Scottish court announced its verdict in the trial of two former Libyan intelligence operatives charged with the downing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988. The trial of the two men began in Camp Zeist, The Netherlands, on May 3, 2000. The court convicted one defendant, Abdel Basset Ali Al-Megrahi, of 270 counts of murder. (The defendants were charged with one count of murder for each person who perished in the bombing.) The other defendant, Lamen Khalifa Fhimah, was acquitted on all charges and released by the court. Al-Megrahi was sentenced to a mandatory life sentence; he is appealing the court's decision. The bombing killed all 259 passengers onboard and an additional 11 individuals on the ground. The two subjects had been accused of being agents of the Libyan Intelligence Service and were given refuge in Libya until April 5, 1999, when Libya agreed to turn the suspects over for trial. By year’s end, the Libyan Government had continued to deny involvement in the bombing.
FEBRUARY 27, 2001
Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK) Members Arrested in Los Angeles
On February 27, 2001, federal, state, and local officials in Los Angeles executed three search warrants and arrested seven individuals on charges of alleged material support of a terrorist organization, the Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK). The individuals arrested are alleged to have knowingly conspired to support the MEK by conducting fund raising, financial transactions, and other activities in support of the MEK organization.
APRIL 6, 2001
Ahmed Ressam Convicted
On April 6, 2001, after a three-week trial in Los Angeles, California, Algerian-born Ahmed Ressam was found guilty on nine criminal counts emanating from a plot to detonate explosives at the Los Angeles International Airport during the U.S. Millennium celebrations. The charges carry a maximum prison sentence of 130 years, and Ressam awaited sentencing at year’s end. In June 2001, Ressam agreed to cooperate with the U.S. Government in the investigation.
On December 14, 1999, authorities arrested Ressam for possession and transportation of explosives found in his rental car as he attempted to enter the United States from Canada at Port Angeles, Washington. The search revealed over 100 pounds of white powder–later determined to be urea sulfate–as well as approximately eight ounces of a highly volatile nitroglycerine mixture and fusing systems components. Other items found in Ressam’s car were a number of forms of identification linked to at least seven aliases–including one used at the Port Angeles border entry point–and maps and guidebooks indicating that he was targeting the Los Angeles airport. A hotel reservation for Ressam near the Seattle Center resulted in a cancellation of the New Year’s celebration at the Space Needle.
Investigation by the FBI and other domestic and foreign law enforcement agencies revealed that Ressam had attended Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and was acting with others as part of a terrorist cell based in Canada. The investigation led to the December 30, 1999 arrest in New York of an Algerian man, Abdelghani Meskini. Testimony given by Meskini purported that he had conspired with Algerian-born Mokhtar Haouri to provide material support to Ressam’s plot to smuggle explosives into the United States. Meskini signed a plea agreement in a federal court in Manhattan, and he agreed to testify against other suspects accused of participating in the millennial bombing plot. Haouri was extradited to the United States from Canada to stand trial, and on July 13, 2001, he was found guilty on the charge of conspiracy to provide material support to a terrorist act and four counts of bank, credit card, and document fraud. Haouri was acquitted on the charge of aiding and abetting a terrorist act. He awaited sentencing at year’s end.
The investigation relating to associates of Ressam, Meskini, and Haouri continues. On April 6, 2000, the Department of State announced a $5 million reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of Abdelmajid Dahoumane for his role in the millennial bombing plot. Dahoumane was arrested in Algeria in August 2000, where he remains in custody for terrorism-related charges in that country.
On August 27, 2001, Abu Doha, a 37-year-old Algerian, was indicted on eight counts, including conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction, for his role in the plot. The indictment alleges that Doha met with Usama bin Laden to plan an attack against a major airport in the United States and that Doha coordinated the attack with Ressam. Doha awaits extradition from the United Kingdom to stand trial in the United States.
On December 12, 2001, Samir Ait Mohamed, a 32-year-old Algerian man living in Canada, was indicted in U.S. District Court in Manhattan on charges of conspiracy to commit an act of international terrorism and to provide material support to a terrorist act; these charges carry a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. Mohamed allegedly tried to obtain weapons for Ressam’s use in commiting bank robberies to raise money for the millennial bombing plot. Mohamed was arrested on November 15, 2001, by Canadian authorities in British Columbia and awaits extradition to the United States to face trial.
JUNE 11, 2001
Execution of Timothy McVeigh, Convicted Oklahoma City Bomber, First Federal Execution in 38 Years
In accordance with the sentence rendered by a unanimous jury on June 13, 1997, Timothy McVeigh died by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, at Terra Haute Prison, Indiana, for bombing the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. McVeigh was convicted on June 2, 1997, on 11 counts of murder and conspiracy for launching an attack against the U.S. Government, which resulted in an explosion that killed 168 people, including 19 children.
Shortly after McVeigh waived his rights to appeal his conviction and sentence on December 28, 2000, his execution was scheduled for May 16, 2001. The original execution date was postponed to allow McVeigh’s attorneys to review additional documents turned over to the court by the FBI. This evidence had not been available to the court during the 1997 trial. After two appeals to extend McVeigh’s stay of execution were denied, on June 7, 2001, McVeigh requested that his death sentence be carried out. McVeigh was executed on June 11, 2001, at 7:00 a.m. with an audience comprised of 25 witnesses and 300 survivors and relatives of the victims who perished in the Oklahoma City bombing. The McVeigh execution marked the first use of the death penalty by the federal government in 38 years.
JUNE 21, 2001
Fourteen Suspects Indicted in Khobar Towers Bombing
On June 21, 2001, the Eastern District of Virginia filed 46 charges against 14 suspects (13 Saudis and one Lebanese) arising from the June 25, 1996 truck bomb attack on the Khobar Towers military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Nineteen American servicemen were killed and 372 other Americans and Saudis were injured. All 14 suspects, Ahmed Al-Mughassil, Ali Al Houri, Hani Al-Sayegh, Ibrahim Al-Yacoub, Abdel Karim Al-Nasser, Mustafa Al-Qassab, Sa’ed Al-Bahar, Abdallah Al-Jarash, Hussein Al-Mughis, Ali Al-Marhoun, Saleh Ramadan, Mustafa Al Mu’alem, Fadel Al-Alawe and the unnamed Lebanese male, were indicted for conspiracy based on their connection to Saudi Hizballah.
JULY 5, 2001
FBI Arrests Aryan Nations Leader in Ohio
On July 5, 2001, Special Agents from the FBI’s Cincinnati field office arrested Danny William Kincaid, leader of the Ohio chapter of the Aryan Nations, on federal weapons violations and for possession of an explosive device. Kincaid was arrested after a 13-month investigation by federal agents. He is charged with the illegal sale of at least 15 firearms. Kincaid was awaiting trial at year’s end.
SEPTEMBER 20, 2001
Office of Homeland Security Announced
In a speech before both houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, President George W. Bush announced the creation of the Office of Homeland Security. The President named former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge as its acting Director. The Office of Homeland Security and its Director will report directly to the President and will be responsible for coordinating matters related to security pre-paredness.
SEPTEMBER 23, 2001
Signing of Executive Order 13224 to Block Terrorist Assets
On September 23, 2001, President Bush issued Executive Order 13224 in response to terrorist acts committed by foreign terrorists against the United States. EO 13224 identifies Specially Designated Global Terrorist Entities and Individuals that are considered a threat to the United States’ national security, and enables the U.S. Government to block their assets in any financial institution in the United States or held by any U.S. person. EO 13224 also expands U.S. Government authority to permit the designation of individuals and organizations that associate with, finance, or provide other support services to designated terrorists.
SEPTEMBER 28, 2001
U.N. Security Council Passes Binding Counterterrorism Resolution
As a result of the September 11 terrorist attack, the U.N. Security Council unanimously approved Resolution 1373 on September 28, 2001, as an international attempt to collectively prevent terrorist acts and identify countries that provide safe-havens or support for terrorist groups. In order to combat terrorism, each U.N. member is required to take specific measures.
OCTOBER 18, 2001
Sentencing of Four Al-Qaeda Members Convicted of Bombing U.S. Embassies
On October 18, 2001, following a 6-month trial, four Al-Qaeda members received life sentences without parole for their roles in a conspiracy to kill Americans which resulted in the August 1998 vehicle bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In addition, each was ordered to pay $7 million in restitution to the victims’ families and $26 million in restitution to the U.S. Government. Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-Owhali, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed, Wadih El-Hage, and Mohamed Sadeek Odeh were convicted on May 29, 2001, in the Southern District of New York on a variety of charges related to the embassies’ bombing plot that included murder, conspiracy to kill U.S. nationals, and conspiracy to destroy buildings or property of the United States. El-Hage was the only U.S. citizen held accountable for the attacks. The four were originally scheduled to be sentenced in September 2001, but sentencing was delayed due to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11.
In the previous year, on October 20, 2000, a former U.S. Army sergeant, Ali Mohamed, pled guilty to assisting in the 1998 plot to bomb the U.S. embassies. Mohamed, a 48-year-old native of Egypt, implicated Usama bin Laden in the plot, stating that in 1993, he was asked by bin Laden to survey potential U.S. targets in Nairobi. In a statement to the court, Mohamed said, “these targets were selected to retaliate against the United States for its involvement in Somalia.” Two other terrorists, Mamdouh Mahmud Salim and Mohamed Sulieman Al-Nalfi were charged separately in the Southern District of New York for their roles in the 1998 bombings. After allegedly attacking and critically wounding a corrections officer at the Metropolitan Correctional Center on November 2, 2000, Salim was severed from the trial and will be tried separately on attempted murder charges in connection with the assault. Mohamed Sulieman Al-Nalfi was arrested in Africa on November 10, 2000. Charged with conspiracy to kill U.S. nationals, Al-Nalfi is in custody and awaits trial in the Southern District of New York.
Three individuals, Ibrahim Hussein Abdelhadi Eidarous, Adel Mohammed Abdul Almagid Abdul Bary, and Khaled Al Fawwaz, are being held in the United Kingdom and are expected to be extradited to stand trial in the Southern District of New York for their involvement in the 1998 bombings.
The bombings at the U.S. embassies on August 7, 1998, resulted in 214 deaths, including those of 12 Americans. During the trial, the jury heard evidence that Mohamed assisted with the construction of the bomb that exploded in the U.S. embassy in Dar es Salaam, and Al-Owhali drove the bomb in a vehicle and parked it at the U.S. embassy in Nairobi. From the beginning, Usama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were viewed as orchestrating the bombings. In order to carry out the attacks, Al-Owhali and Mohamed attended weapons and explosive training at an Al-Qaeda terrorist training camp in Afghanistan. For their direct involvement in the attacks, government attorneys had originally sought the death penalty for Mohamed and Al-Owhali; this marked the first time the U.S. Government had sought the death penalty for individuals charged with committing acts of international terrorism.
OCTOBER 26, 2001
USA PATRIOT Act Enacted
On October 26, 2001, the President signed the “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001” (USA PATRIOT Act). A description of the act and its implications for U.S. law enforcement’s investigation and prosecution of persons who engage in terrorist activity is provided in the In-Focus section of this report.
OCTOBER 31, 2001
Symbionese Liberation Army Extremist Pleads Guilty
On October 31, 2001, Kathleen Ann Soliah pled guilty to two counts related to the 1975 plot to plant car bombs designed to kill Los Angeles police officers. These attacks were planned in retaliation for the deaths of six Symbionese Liberation Army members by law enforcement during a shoot-out in Los Angeles. The indictment was handed down on February 26, 1976. Soliah remained a fugitive for 23 years until her arrest on June 16, 1999, predicated on information provided by a viewer of the television show America’s Most Wanted. To avoid capture, Soliah was living in St. Paul, Minnesota, using the alias Sara Jane Olsen.
NOVEMBER 19, 2001
Reward of $25 Million Offered for Usama bin Laden
On November 19, 2001, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell authorized a reward of up to $25 million for information leading to the capture of Usama bin Laden and other key Al-Qaeda leaders. The Rewards for Justice Program was established by the 1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism. The U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security administers the program, under which the Secretary of State may offer rewards of up to $5 million for information that prevents or favorably resolves acts of international terrorism against U.S. persons or property worldwide. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, which became law on October 26, authorizes the Department of State to offer or pay rewards of greater than $5 million if the Secretary of State determines that a greater amount is necessary to defend the United States against terrorist acts.
NOVEMBER 30, 2001
Sentencing of White Supremacist Brothers for Synagogue Arsons
On November 30, 2001, Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams were sentenced for setting fires to three synagogues on June 18, 1999, and an abortion clinic on July 2, 1999, all in Sacramento, California. Benjamin Williams received a sentence of 30 years in prison, while his brother was sentenced to 21 years and three months in prison. The brothers were also ordered to pay $1 million in restitution. The Williams brothers, who are followers of the World Church of the Creator and the Aryan Nations, pled guilty in September 2001. The Williams brothers are also awaiting trial on murder charges for their suspected role of killing a homosexual couple on July 2, 1999. If convicted, the Williams brothers could face the death penalty.
DECEMBER 4, 2001
Leader of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan sentenced
On December 4, 2001, Jeff Berry, leader of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was sentenced to seven years in prison for conspiracy to commit criminal confinement with a deadly weapon. The charges stemmed from a 1999 incident in which Berry refused to allow a local reporter and his camera-woman to leave his home following an interview.
DECEMBER 5, 2001
Arrest of Anti-Abortionist Clayton Lee Waagner
On December 5, 2001, Clayton Lee Waagner was arrested without incident by the Springdale (Ohio) Police Department at a local copy center. On September 14, 2001, Waagner had been placed on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted Fugitives List, stemming from a series of crimes related directly and indirectly to his violent anti-abortion activism. On February 22, 2001, Waagner escaped from an Illinois jail, after being convicted for firearms and other charges and awaiting a possible 15-years-to-life sentence.
Waagner was apprehended as a result of a nationwide manhunt; he has been accused of mailing hoax anthrax letters to reproductive health clinics nationwide during September and October 2001. On September 18, 2001, Waagner was indicted for firearms violations in Tennessee and a carjacking in Mississippi. Additional charges may surface against him in connection with additional bank robberies in West Virginia and Pennsylvania.
DECEMBER 11, 2001
Zacarias Moussaoui Indicted on Conspiracy Charges Related to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
On December 11, 2001, Zacarias Moussaoui was indicted in the Eastern District of Virginia on six counts, including conspiracy to commit acts of terrorism. The indictment alleges that Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan descent, was involved in the conspiracy which resulted in the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Moussaoui is alleged to have trained in a terrorist training camp run by Al-Qaeda and conspired with several of the 19 hijackers who participated in the attacks.
DECEMBER 22, 2001
Arrest of Alleged Shoe Bomber
On December 22, 2001, Richard C. Reid was arrested after flight attendants on American Airlines flight 63 observed him apparently attempting to ignite an improvised explosive device in his sneakers while onboard the Paris-to-Miami flight. Aided by passengers, the attendants overpowered and subdued Reid and the flight was diverted to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts. Reid, who was traveling on a valid British passport, has been indicted on nine counts, including placing an explosive device on an aircraft and attempted murder. FBI investigation has determined that the explosives in Reid's shoes, if detonated in certain areas of the passenger cabin, could have blown a hole in the fuselage of the aircraft. Reid's indictment charges that he trained in camps operated by Al-Qaeda.
Clockwise from top:
shoe worn by Richard C. Reid aboard American Airlines flight 63;
Richard C. Reid;
FBI test-blast of comparable explosive charge.
TRENDS IN ANIMAL RIGHTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMISM
During the past several years, the violence and destructive activities perpetrated by animal rights and environmental extremists in the United States and elsewhere have increased in frequency and intensity. These extremists have used arson, harassment, death threats, animal releases, and razor blade threat letters to intimidate individuals and businesses they perceive to be abusive to animals or destructive to the environment. The victims include, but are not limited to, fur farmers and retailers, research laboratories and personnel, circuses, zoos, fast food restaurants, forestry services, and large corporations. These terrorist acts are committed by persons and groups who believe all animals and all parts of the ecosystem, no matter how small or seemingly inconsequential, have the right to exist, be respected, and be protected from destruction by humanity. The use of violent criminal means to achieve these goals represents a departure from the larger and more mainstream animal welfare and environmental movements, which support the humane treatment of animals and the protection of the environment and its resources, but operate within existing laws to promote these causes.
Animal rights extremists in the United States often claim their actions on behalf of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). The ALF’s ideology is one of unwavering support for the liberation of captive animals by any means, including criminal activity. ALF activists in the United States have generally adhered to the movement’s stated mandate of protecting human life during the course of its “direct actions” while simultaneously causing severe economic damage to various retailers, fur farms, laboratories, and other animal enterprises.
The emphasis placed upon economic damage underscores a very practical aspect of the movement's approach to terrorism. ALF activists engage in very few
“symbolic” acts of terrorism; instead, the movement’s attacks are specifically designed to cause a sufficient level of economic hardship to drive individual enterprises out of operation. Thus, the most likely targets of ALF terrorism are very specifically chosen. That is, ALF activists will not merely attack a university where animal research is conducted, but rather will attempt to locate the specific laboratory at the university where the research is being conducted, free the experimental animals, and subsequently destroy research data and equipment or the facility itself. Rather than simply “send a message,” these actions are designed to bring about an end to the perceived animal abuse.
ALF activities in the United States during the past 25 years have included a wide variety of tactics with a broad range of sophistication. A review of the movement's literature, which includes a running tally of ALF activities nationally and internationally, indicates a significant level of criminal activity ranging from graffiti, broken windows, and other acts of petty vandalism to pipe-bombings, large-scale mink releases, destruction of research documentation, and arson.1 ALF has a considerable history of committing low-level criminal activity in the United States dating back to the 1970s. However, ALF's activities began to fall under increased federal scrutiny in the late 1980s, in the aftermath of an arson at the Veterinary Medicine Research Building at the University of California-Davis in April 1987. ALF claimed responsibility for the attack, which resulted in an estimated $3.5 million in damages.2 At the time, this arson represented one of the most destructive acts of animal rights extremism in American history, although in recent years, the group has claimed responsibility for a number of arson attacks that have been equally destructive. In August 1992, for example, ALF extremists raided the campus of Michigan State University and set fire to an office, destroying files containing 32 years of toxicology and nutrition research.3 The ALF also claimed responsibility for the July 1997 arson of a horse-rendering plant in Redmond, Oregon, which resulted in over $1 million in damage to the physical plant and caused significant secondary costs resulting from the loss of revenue normally generated by the facility. In May 1998 the ALF claimed responsibility for an attack on a processing plant owned by Florida Veal Processors, Inc., in Wimauma, which caused approximately $500,000 in damage.
Although ALF activists have carried out numerous multimillion dollar arson attacks, the ALF has also consistently targeted fur farms in a campaign of animal “liberations.” The ALF Information Service web site provides information detailing how and when to strike a fur farm. Individuals interested in “hitting” a fur farm are encouraged to scout out the farm to determine the types of security measures in place, the best time to target a facility, and when pelting will begin (the web site explains that security measures are typically increased during pelting season). The web site further explains that fur farmers may relax security precautions after pelting season, and that “if at all possible pelting/skinning/feed sheds can be burned to the ground or have extensive damage done to them by using paint or acid. Pelting machines, equipment and feeding tractors can also be damaged.”4
The ALF’s attacks against animal enterprises are closely emulated by the movement's environmental counterpart, the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). While the level of cross-affiliation between the two movements is unclear at this time, extremists adhering to ALF and ELF ideologies often use the same tactics and spokespersons, suggesting some degree of interaction and, perhaps, coordination. In addition, the web sites of the two movements often intermingle claims of responsibility for destructive activities, further suggesting some level of operational coordination.
The ELF specifically advocates arson and the destruction of laboratories/research facilities that use animals for scientific study, fur farms, horse ranches, meat-processing plants, and corporations associated with the forest and logging industry. Collectively, the ELF refers to these acts as “monkeywrenching.”
According to ELF literature posted on the ALF Frontline News Service, the ELF movement is an “international underground organization consisting of autonomous groups of people who carry out direct action according to E.L.F. guidelines.” These guidelines, posted on the ELF web site, are as follows:
I. to inflict economic damage to those who profit from the destruction and exploitation of the natural environment;
II. to reveal and educate the public on the atrocities committed against the environment and all the species which cohabitate in it; and
III. to take all necessary precautions against harming any animal, human and non-human.
The group’s literature also claims that the ELF “operates in groups called cells that may consist of one to many individuals working together. Each cell is autonomous not only to the public, but also to one another. This secure structure helps to keep activists out of jail and free to continue conducting actions.” Through acts of sabotage, the ELF’s goal is to inflict as much economic damage as possible on corporations whose interests are perceived to be at odds with the environment.5 The ELF may be best known for the October 19, 1998 arson fires at the Vail Ski Resort in Vail, Colorado, in which four ski lifts, a restaurant, a picnic facility, and a utility building were destroyed. The fires were set at multiple structures in two different locations on the top of Vail Mountain (elevation approximately 11,200 feet). Total structural loss was estimated at approximately $12 million. On October 21, 1998, the ELF, claiming sole responsibility for the arson on behalf of the lynx, sent an e-mail message to several news agencies in Colorado. The message warned that further action would be taken if necessary.
Violent extremism on behalf of animal rights and the environment is clearly on the rise in the United States. Much like terrorist groups of the past, animal rights and environmental terrorists are adopting increasingly militant positions with respect to their ideology and chosen tactics. Terrorists who engage in criminal activity on behalf of these causes have continued to distinguish themselves from their counterparts in the mainstream animal welfare and conservation movements, who oppose the inhumane treatment of animals and environmental degradation but choose legal and nonviolent means of opposition.
Given the increasing frequency and intensity in activity, law enforcement officials are increasingly faced with the challenge to respond to animal rights and ecoterrorism at the local, state, and national levels. Investigations of extremist acts perpetrated by the ALF and the ELF pose formidable challenges, given the focus of these movements on evidence destruction, secrecy, and operational security.
1 See the ALF “Diary of
2 Bent L. Smith, Terrorism in
America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe
Dreams (Albany, N.Y.: State
University of New York Press,
1994), p. 1349.
3 Constance Holden, “Animal
rightists trash MSU lab,”
American Association for the
Advancement of Science,
vol. 255, no. 5050, p. 1349.
5 The Seattle Times “Eco-Terrorism, Radical environmentalists’ sabotage has cost business, developers millions,” May 1, 2000.
THE USA PATRIOT ACT
On October 26, 2001, the President signed the “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001” (USA PATRIOT Act).6 This major piece of legislation, drafted in direct response to the terrorist attack of September 11, consists of more than 150 sections. The Act is far-reaching in the areas of law it touches. Changes were made to national security authorities, the substantive criminal law, immigration law, money-laundering statutes, victim assistance statutes, as well as other areas. Summarized below are some of the major changes the Act made to bolster the FBI's capabilities in the fight against terrorism.
On the national security front, the modifications made by the USA PATRIOT Act were geared toward improving the process by which federal law enforcement officials obtain legal authority for conducting surveillance and searching for agents of a foreign power; strengthening the sharing and coordinating of information at the national level; and issuing subpoenas for certain records associated with national security investigations.
The Act made several amendments to the “Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978” (FISA).7 FISA provides a formal procedure, approved by Congress, for the government to obtain court orders authorizing the use of electronic surveillance and physical searches within the United States to obtain “foreign intelligence information.”8 In practice, the language of the statute was interpreted over the years to mean that the gathering of foreign intelligence information, as opposed to criminal prosecution, had to be the “primary” purpose for requesting surveillance or search authority under FISA. Section 218 of the “USA PATRIOT Act” altered this so that the gathering of foreign intelligence now must be a "significant" purpose for requesting an order from the FISA Court. The practical effect of this change is to allow personnel involved in FISA surveillance or searches to consult with law enforcement officials to coordinate efforts to investigate or protect against attacks, terrorism, sabotage, or clandestine intelligence activities.
Other modifications made to FISA by the USA PATRIOT Act include the expansion of the number of judges who review applications for FISA orders from seven to 11; extension of the duration of electronic surveillance and search orders on certain categories of individuals determined to be “agents of a foreign power”; granting of “roving” authority which allows the FBI to efficiently serve orders on communications carriers and thus meet the challenges posed by agents of a foreign power who rapidly switch telephone carriers, cell phones, or Internet accounts as a way of thwarting surveillance; and modification to the legal standard for compelling the production and type of business records.
The USA PATRIOT Act changed key features of existing National Security Letter (NSL) authority. NSLs are a type of subpoena issued in foreign counterintelligence and international terrorism investigations to obtain records under the statutory authority of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (telephone and Internet Service Provider records), the Right to Financial Privacy Act (financial institution records), and the Fair Credit Reporting Act (records from credit bureaus). Congress changed the legal standard for this authority to require that the information sought be relevant to an ongoing investigation to protect against international terrorism or clandestine intelligence activities. The change in predication for this investigative tool allowed the FBI Director to delegate signature authority for NSLs to the Special Agents in Charge of FBI field offices.
The Act also created a new definition of “domestic terrorism,” in order to correspond to the existing definition of “international terrorism.” The term is defined to mean activities occurring primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States involving acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any state and appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping.
On the criminal side, the definition of a federal crime of terrorism was modified to include several offenses likely to be committed by terrorists, including a number of aircraft violence crimes and certain computer crimes. New federal offenses include attacks on mass transportation systems, vehicles, facilities or passengers; harboring or concealing persons who have committed or are about to commit a variety of terrorist offenses; expansion of the prohibition on providing material support or resources to terrorists to include expert advice and assistance; and possessing a biological agent or toxin of a type or in a quantity that is not reasonably justified for specifically defined purposes. Additionally, the “International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001” was incorporated into the USA PATRIOT Act and was intended to significantly increase the United States’ ability to combat the financing of terrorism. In making these modifications to existing laws, Congress intended to strengthen the capabilities of federal law enforcement in the fight against terrorism while simultaneously protecting civil liberties. All FBI investigations are authorized in accordance with strict guidelines set down by the Attorney General of the United States. One set of these guidelines, the Guidelines on General Crimes, Racketeering Enterprises, and Terrorism Enterprise Investigations, makes clear that investigations of suspected terrorists will not be carried out on the basis of race, ethnicity, or religious affiliation. Additionally, the amended legal authorities stipulate that no investigation of a U.S. person may be conducted solely on the basis of activities protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution.
The image in its original context
on the page: www.fbi.gov/.../terror/terror2000_2001.htm